Located in Bloomfield Hills, Cranbrook Education Community was founded by Detroit Philanthropists George and Ellen Scripps Booth as a private estate in 1904 with a design rooted in the Arts & Crafts movement. In the 1920s and 30s, it grew into a center of education, artistic experimentation, and scientific discovery. Designed, for the most part, by Eliel Saarinen, Cranbrook is anchored by its Academy of Art—where Eliel and his wife Loja taught—a graduate school of art, design, and architecture where it served as an incubator of Midcentury Modernism. This is where his daughter Pipsan (an industrial, interior, and textile designer) and son Eero (the well-known architect) were raised. It was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1989.